The history of bitumen is briefly explained in this article.
Sumerians, Assyrians and many previous civilizations used bitumen extensively and this material was used as an anti-humidity material and also to protect wood and various things such as embalming, sculpture and decorations.
Also, the bitumen found in natural beds along with baked bricks in the form of mastic has been used in the construction of temples, foundations of bridges, streets and houses. Around four to five centuries BC, the Achaemenians also used bitumen for sealing in Persepolis, the traces of which can still be seen in this collection.
The first use of this word (Bitumen) in Latin dates back to around 1460 AD. In American English, it is called Asphalt, which is equivalent to “asphalt mixture” in Farsi.
The beginning of the modern bitumen industry can be attributed to 1712 AD, when natural bitumen stones were discovered in France. At that time, bituminous materials were simply spread in the form of lumps on the surface of local roads so that the traffic gradually wears them down and compacts them.
This technique was completely successful and in a short period of time, some improvements were made in this field, including powdering and heating the materials before use. Then the asphalts were compacted and firmed by pounding and flattening with a hot iron. This material, which was generally known as Compressed Rock Asphalt, was used with great success in the streets of Europe.